In order to make a comparison, you have to define either side of the comparison using 「方」(ほう) and/or 「より」. 「方」 defines the direction the comparison is leaning toward while 「より」 defines the side it’s leaning away from. The important thing to remember is that 「方」 is a noun while 「より」 is a particle. Another particle often used in making comparisons is 「ほど」, which describes the extent of something.


  1. 方 【ほう】 – direction; side
  2. ~より (particle) – rather than ~
  3. ~ほど (particle) – extent of ~
  4. どちら – which way
  5. 犬 【いぬ】 – dog
  6. 猫 【ねこ】 – cat
  7. 英語 【えい・ご】 – English (language)
  8. 日本語 【に・ほん・ご】 – Japanese (language)
  9. 難しい 【むずか・しい】(i-adj) – difficult
  10. 思う 【おも・う】(u-verb) – to think
  1. 犬と猫、どちらのが好き?
    Which do (you) like more, dog or cat? (lit: Dog and cat, which side is (the) one (you like)?)
  2. 犬のが猫より好き。
    Like dog more than cat. (lit: Like the side of dog rather than cat.)
  3. 犬のが猫より嫌い。
    Hate dog more than cat. (lit: Hate the side of dog rather than cat.)
  4. 猫は、犬ほど好きじゃない。
    Don’t like cat as much as dog. (lit: Don’t like cat to extent of dog.)
  5. 英語と日本語、どちらの方が難しいと思いますか?
    Which do (you) think is harder, English or Japanese? (lit: English and Japanese, which side is harder (you) think?)

Cats or Dogs

Alice: Which do (you) like more, dog or cat

Lee: I like both. (lit: Like either way also.)

John: Isn’t dog better. Because (they’re) smarter than cats.

Alice: But dog(s) are tougher to take care of and don’t (you) think cat(s) are cuter?

John: (I) think both are tough to take care of and as for me, I think dogs are much more cute.

Alice: Why do (you) hate cat(s) that much?

John: (I’m) not saying (I) hate (them)!

Alice: (I’m) sure, when (you) were a child, something bad occurred with a cat, huh?

John: No, not really…

Alice: Anyway, (I) have never met a person that hates cat(s) to the extent of John-san.

John: Like I said, (I) don’t hate (them).

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