Chapter summary and practice

In this chapter, we covered may different ways to express various levels of necessity in our actions. We can now talk about required and optional activities, ask for permission, make requests, and more. This is useful for navigating through the rules and manners of society, especially one with a very different culture like Japan. Another common application of what we learned in this chapter is to talk about your duties and responsibilities either at work, home, or school.

We also learned how to give and receive things or favors. This is particularly useful for talking about gift-giving and getting assistance on various things. In particular, the section on making suggestions will allow you to ask for advice on how to best way to do things such as studying Japanese.

Below are a list of sample topics you can write about or discuss with your conversation partner (either in casual or polite form as appropriate).

  1. 仕事や学校でどんなことをしないといけないの?
    What kind of things do you have to do at work or school?
  2. 日本語はどうやって勉強すればいいと思いますか。
    How (do you) think (I) should study Japanese?
  3. 自分の国ではどんな時にプレゼントをもらったり、あげたりしますか。
    At what kind of times do (you) receive or give presents in one’s own country?
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